文章摘要
王 玲.当代国际艺术实践中民族志方法的利用及新动向[J].民族学刊,2019,10(3):5-13, 100-102
当代国际艺术实践中民族志方法的利用及新动向
The Employment and New Trends of Ethnographic Approaches in Contemporary International Art
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.03.02
中文关键词: 当代艺术实践  民族志方法  参与  协作  反思性
英文关键词: contemporary art practices  ethnographic approaches  participation  collaboration  reflexivity
基金项目:
作者单位
王 玲 云南大学外国语学院 
摘要点击次数: 40
全文下载次数: 46
中文摘要:
      民族志探究的反思性和重新界定参与体现于当代视觉艺术运动中。当代国际艺术实践中民族志方法的利用既能通向有趣的协作类型,也易导致民族志的单纯审美化。当代艺术和媒体实践强调参与和协作,协作动态能使研究者与艺术家一起嵌入为记录和呈现协作过程的技术开发。通过线上和移动媒体的记录能为艺术家和公众提供以不同方式参与和反思的机会。当代艺术实践中使用民族志方法的主要挑战之一是要理解地方和在场如何能以不同方式缠绕和重叠。艺术与变成一套多价值跨学科方法和概念框架的民族志日益密切,分析二者的交叉有价值。批判反思在艺术和民族志中均发挥作用。艺术实践中民族志的利用新近转向跨国、跨文化、跨学科协作,跨线、跨场域、跨时空共同在场,非中心化话语,多元化参与视角、形式,以及多维度阐释,因而可能为全球艺术发展提供更大洞察力和严谨性。
英文摘要:
      Ethnography has emerged as a widely employed approach in contemporary media culture, and has been accepted by people in the visual arts as a way to write about cultural practices. The reflexive negotiation of self, power, labor and participation have remained central concepts of ethnographic practices. Relationship aesthetics has identified a key ongoing tendency in contemporary arts — the application of ethnography. Drawing on case studies of recent international art projects, we need to define the intertwinement between arts and ethnography, and examine the ethnographic turn haunting contemporary arts through numerous guises from relationship aesthetics onwards. The employment of ethnographic approaches in contemporary international art practices can not only lead to interesting types of collaboration, but can also easily cause an aestheticization of ethnography. Recent art projects both borrow the conventional documentation forms and participant observation ideal of traditional ethnography, and present new representational forms of mobile media and contemporary characteristics different from it. With the development of globalization, networking, digitalization, media culture, mobile technology, virtual reality and other technologies, various utilizations of ethnographic approaches by the art world reflect the similarities among and differences between contemporary art ethnography and traditional ethnography and its new orientations and trends. In the debates surrounding the concepts of identity and place related to traditional ethnography, there is a need to rethink place as not just geography but, also look at its relationship to multiple forms of presence. The movement from understanding place as a location to a space for various forms of presence is essential to both the contemporary arts and ethnographic practices. Geo-ethnography examines place as a concept that is experienced and imagined, and provides a productive way to think about how the arts shape, and are shaped by, localities and regions across the world. Both contemporary arts and media practices emphasize participation and collaboration. Ethnography has taken on new importance as a way in which to grapple with the changing notions of place. The rise of digital and media ethnography seeks to address new phenomena emerging with the rise of digital and mobile media. Different models for presenting and writing about collaborative art projects are required to make their processes explicit and include them as part of their outcomes. Such methods will combine participatory methods of observation and documentation. Such embedded processes need to be cognizant of the importance of critical reflection around subject-object positions, and try to delineate insider and outsider perspectives. Online social media focuses on being “present” and enables the use of a range of modes of presentation and access which is easily accessible. There is significant potential in using the influence of social media in constructing intimate engagements between the arts and audiences. The adoption of a reflective practice-led research method is also required to enable the researcher, as an active partner in the collaborative project, to observe, document, reflect on and then present the social nature of creative knowledge production. This form of research involves imaginative and creative elements. This method, acknowledging a collaborative dynamic between researchers and their subjects of study, has been an important method in ethnographic research. A collaborative dynamic enables researchers to be embedded with artists in developing the techniques for documenting and presenting the process of collaboration. Live documentation through online and mobile media can provide artists and the public with opportunities to participate and reflect in different ways. With the rise of socially engaged projects, that tend to be merely stylistic or aesthetic, rather than critically and reflexively engaged, like the ethical issues facing socially engaged practices of art, one of the key challenges for contemporary art practices in using ethnographic approaches is to understand how place and presence can be intertwined and overlaid in different ways across the online and offline, here and there, now and then. While the digital or online turn marks a shift from co-location to co-presence, whether online or offline, negotiating co-location or co-presence, the role of participant observation remains central to rigorous ethnographic practices. Mere procedural documentation does not equate to ethnography. There is a need for more rigorous understanding and employment of ethnography as a method in the arts and its new turn. With the new dynamic of the flow of contemporary international cultural goods and services, ethnography is seen in such fields as media studies, online studies and cultural studies. As ethnographic approaches evolve, migrate and transform, the migration of ethnography across various disciplines, such as anthropology, sociology and digital culturology, has seen the transformation of the definition of ethnography as both a method and a theoretical probe, and the transformation of the debates around ethnics versus aesthetics in the arts. Ethnography has participated in shaping, and has been shaped by, such phenomena as digital media. Changing are both the art and ethnographic practices in relationship to digital mediation and the topography of understanding place in the light of online-offline relationships which emphasize symbolic as well as geographic ideas of place. There are some changes in the relationship between art and ethnography, which have become increasingly intimate, and the analysis of their intersection is valuable in light of the participatory assumptions often made around social media. Art ethnography contributes to the studies of the world of meanings formed by artistic cultures, and the studies of the social relationships and structures formed by artistic behaviors. Ethnography has become a multivalent set of interdisciplinary methods and conceptual frameworks, and is an important approach for understanding digital and online spaces. Conceptualized in contemporary art practices and presenting different orientations, the employment of forms and interpretation of dimensions, ethnography can help artists to probe cultural contexts, providing a nuanced space in which they and the audience can reflect. Critical reflexivity plays a role in both art and ethnography. The crossover collaboration in contemporary art practices creates opportunities for experiencing and understanding the tensions and key relations arising in globalization, particularly those of individual identity, knowledge production and cultural differences. An emphasis on the social space of the arts is a typical characteristic of contemporary art practices that challenge conventional exhibition structures and conventions to become dynamic and creative sites of production more open to discursive transformations and interactive productions. The employment of ethnography in contemporary art practices has recently turned to transnational, intercultural and interdisciplinary collaboration. It creates a co-presence across lines, sites, times and spaces, a “decentered” discourse, plural participatory perspectives and forms, and multi-dimensional interpretations, so that it can provide greater insight and rigor for the development of global arts, crossover communication and collaboration in the art world, and the theoretical construction and development of art ethnography.
查看全文   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭

手机扫一扫看
分享按钮