文章摘要
陈井安,柴剑峰.川甘青毗邻藏区贫困农牧民参与旅游扶贫新探索[J].民族学刊,2019,10(3):14-20, 103-105
川甘青毗邻藏区贫困农牧民参与旅游扶贫新探索
New Exploration of the Participation of Poor Farmers and Herdsmen in Pro-Poor Tourism in the Tibetan Region which Borders on Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.03.03
中文关键词: 川甘青毗邻藏区  脱贫攻坚  贫困农牧民  旅游扶贫
英文关键词: the Tibetan region which borders on Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan  poor farmers and herdsmen  Pro-Poor Tourism
基金项目:
作者单位
陈井安 四川省社会科学院康藏研究中心 
柴剑峰 四川省社会科学院康藏研究中心 
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中文摘要:
      川甘青毗邻藏区属国家集中连片特困区,贫困面广、量大、程度深、矛盾多、协调难。同时,该地区生态旅游资源丰富,旅游产业发展在脱贫攻坚中发挥着越来越重要的作用。但贫困农牧民参与意识差、参与能力弱、参与机会少、参与形式单一制约了旅游扶贫的效果。本文运用旅游扶贫基本理论框架,梳理了研究区实施旅游扶贫独特价值,结合320户贫困户调研数据及部门座谈中发现的问题,对农牧民参与旅游扶贫的意愿和行为进行了问题诊断,从政府、市场和社会互动关系入手,围绕提升农牧民参与旅游业意识、提高旅游从业服务能力、扩大旅游业的就业机会,促进旅游产业区域间协同等方面,提出优化该地区农户参与式旅游扶贫的具体策略。
英文摘要:
      The Tibetan region which borders on Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan is one of the nationally designated, concentrated poverty-stricken areas; it belongs to the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The wide-spread and deep poverty of this area is intertwined with its characteristic natural conditions, ethnic religions, social governance, and so on. At the same time, the region is rich in tourism resources, and boasts a number of world-class and national-level tourist attractions. The charming natural scenery, diverse cultural landscapes and religious cultures of this region provide an important foundation for building a world class tourism destination, and the development of the tourism industry is playing an increasingly important role in the region’s poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The research on Pro-Poor Tourism illustrates its unique value. This is because implementing pro-poor tourism could 1) play to the regions’ comparative advantages; 2) give full play to comprehensive advantages in employment; 3) promote the harmonious coexistence of man and nature in the area; 4) stimulate an internal impetus for poverty alleviation; and 5) promote cultural exchanges. The key to improving the efficiency of Pro-Poor Tourism is to maximize the participation of poor farmers and herdsmen, and give full play to the guiding role of stakeholders so as to enhance the competitiveness, operation and sustainability of Pro-Poor Tourism. Realizing the effective participation of the poor farmers and herdsmen should start from three aspects, namely, their: willingness to participate, ability to participate, and opportunity to participate. These three should mutually influence each other and move together in the same direction. Among these, the willingness of poor farmers and herdsmen to participate is the starting point for effective participation; the ability to participate is the key support; and the opportunity to participate is the basic guarantee. In addition to the strengths and weaknesses in the relationships among these three elements, the actual situations also determine the degree of effective participation of poor farmers and herdsmen. When their situation is same, the three factors overlay each other, but, when they oppose each other, then, they restrict each other. The basic trigger point for change lies in providing fair participation opportunities for poor farmers through their being stakeholders, thus, orienting the three elements in the direction of positive change, and forming a greater synergy of effective participation. However,the farm participation in tourism development faces real obstacles, which are as follows: 1) The “participation awareness” of the poor farmers and herdsmen is weak. Firstly, influenced by their religious culture, people’s awareness of a market economy and commerce is relatively poor. This, in turn, restricts the development of the tourism industry. Secondly, the social networks of local farmers and herdsmen are relatively weak. They have few relatives and friends who go outside their area to work, so they are very ill-informed, and their social capital is very deficient. Thirdly, the concept of “waiting for assistance” still exists, and internal motivation for development is not strong. 2) The ability of the poor farmers and herdsmen to participate is low. Education is the basic guarantee for employment capacity; however, the poor farmers and herdsmen’s relatively low overall level of education, their lack of effective communication skills, ability to work, and learning ability, make it difficult for them to adapt to the requirements of tourism development. According to the results of a questionnaire conducted among 320 poor households, 46.54% of the heads of households did not attend school; 93.40% of the heads of households who only had primary school education or less, and only 30 persons had a junior high school level of education or above (including dropouts from junior high school), accounting for only 9.43%. This low level of human capital stock has seriously affected the overall capacity of the farmers and herdsmen. Furthermore, more than half of the poor households cannot communicate in Han-Chinese, which also affects their effective participation in Pro-Poor Tourism. 3) The opportunity for the participation of the poor farmers and herdsmen is limited. Firstly, the proportion of the owned tourism resources of the poor farmers and herdsmen is low, and the quality of tourism resources in most places is very ordinary; secondly, it is rare for the poor households to own their own resources, which further restricts their effective participation in Pro-Poor Tourism; Thirdly, facilities supporting tourism are still weak; the participation of market elements is insufficient; and the tourism investment platform has not been effectively built. The fundamental causes for these problems include: 1) insufficient support from the government. Firstly, the top-level design needs improvement; there is no unified planning and professional operations team, which results in the shortage of tourism industries, singular tourism circuits; inadequate tourism product development, and insufficient connections, organization and coordination of the tourism industries. Secondly, government related investment in Pro-Poor Tourism is insufficient, for instance, transportation, communication and other kinds of infrastructure still have large room for development, and the safety and convenience of tourists still need improvement. Thirdly, government investment in the education and training of poor farmers and herdsmen is insufficient. 2) low degree of market maturity. Firstly, the region is not completely a competitive market; the mechanisms of value, supply and demand and competition function poorly. Secondly, the space for the tourist market is limited; the ability of the market to compete and sustainably develop is weak. Thirdly, the norms of the tourism industry, market order and related supervision mechanisms need improvement. 3) Low development of social organization. Firstly, the collective economy in the region is weak. Secondly, the participation of professional tourism enterprises is insufficient. Thirdly, the participation of tourism industry associations, NGO, and professional social workers is insufficient. 4) low degree of cultural integration. As a typical Tibetan region, enlisting the service of the positive factors in Tibetan Buddhism for Pro-Poor Tourism is still insufficient. This paper suggests that an innovative strategy for the participation of farmers and herdsmen in Pro-Poor Tourism could start from the following five aspects: 1) Take raising awareness of the participation of poor farmers and herdsmen as a foothold. We should urge more poor people to participate in poverty alleviation through the interaction between government and society, and drive material poverty alleviation through spiritual poverty alleviation. 2) Take improving the comprehensive quality of farmers and herdsmen as a key point. We should strengthen the overall service capacity of farmers and herdsmen in tourism, and enhance the long-term development of tourism and sustainable poverty alleviation. 3) Take improving the organizational capacity of farmers as a supporting point. We should improve the degree of specialization of tourism, and enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of poverty alleviation. 4) Take enriching tourism and enhancing tourism competitiveness as a point of breakthrough. We should combine governmental top-level design with grassroots exploration, and broaden the ways for farmers and herdsmen to eliminate poverty. 5) Take enhancing overall tourism by supporting construction, and strengthening the implementation of poverty alleviation through tourism as the key point. We should simultaneously improve the convenience of the farmers and herdsmen’s production and lives, the convenience of the tourists’ tourism experience, and organically integrate the production and lives of the farmers and herdsmen.
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