文章摘要
杨杰宏.传承中的再造:羌族口头传统的文化生境及特征[J].民族学刊,2019,10(3):36-43, 112-114
传承中的再造:羌族口头传统的文化生境及特征
Reconstructing in the Process of Inheritance: Cultural Habitat and Characteristics of Oral Tradition of the Qiang
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.03.06
中文关键词: 口头传统  释比  释比经典  汉藏文化  传统再造
英文关键词: oral traditions  Shibi  Shibi classics  Han-Tibetan culture  traditional reconstruction
基金项目:
作者单位
杨杰宏 中国社科院民族文学研究所 
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中文摘要:
      口耳相传的口头传统构成了羌族传统文化的主体内容,其特征表现在内容的丰富性、内部文化的差异性、传承形态的宗教性、文化影响的多元性等方面。这些特征既是羌族民众基于深厚的历史传统中传承生成的,也是在与多元文化互动共融中不断进行合理性改造中达成的。传承中的再造构成了羌族口头传统生成与发展的内在动力。
英文摘要:
      Oral traditions handed down orally constitute the main content of Qiang traditional culture. It is characterized by a richness of content, diversity of internal culture, a transmission shaped by its religious nature, and pluralistic cultural influences. These characteristics are not only the inheritance of the Qiang people based on their unique cultural habitat, but also on the continuous rational transformation which come from their interaction and integration with multiple cultures. The reconstruction of their transmission constitutes an internal motivating force for the generation and development of Qiang oral traditions. Cultural habitat mainly refers to that which an ethnic culture needs to survive and develop. This includes both the natural and human environment. The Qiang occupy the junction of northwest and southwest China, between the two cultural circles of the Han and Tibetan. They have a long history, and have experienced many cultural changes brought about by such things as war, integration, sub-dividing into different branches, and migration, etc. In addition, the general geographical environment of the Qiang consists mostly of vertical and horizontal gullies divided by high mountains and valleys, which create major obstacles to transportation and communication. This geographic feature, creates the characteristic of multiple diversity within Qiang culture. It also constitutes the cultural habitat for both the survival and development of the oral traditions of the Qiang people. The purpose of this paper is, based upon a combination of textual research and field observations of Qiang oral traditions, to explore and reflect on their cultural habitat and the characteristics of the traditions as a whole. 1. The oral traditions of the Qiang are relatively complete, they are well organized and coherent, and have complete classification systems. If we look at Qiang oral traditions from the perspective of their being well organized and coherent, they can be divided into oral literature, oral customary law, oral history, oral calendars, oral medicine and other different kinds of cultural systems. If we look at them from the perspective of the subject of the oral tradition, they can be divided into Shibi, folk singers, folk doctors, common people and so on. According to the classification of their oral traditions, the Qiang still vividly preserve various contents from different categories, for example, epics, myths, legends, stories, riddles, folk songs, and proverbs, etc. Folk songs can be further divided into sacrificial songs, labor songs, folk songs, drinking songs, love songs, festival songs, and story songs, etc. A diachronic analysis reveals that there are not only “oral genealogies” whose origins derive from the original culture of the ethnic group, but also oral sacrificial texts produced under the influence of Han and Tibetan religious cultures, and also new folk songs that integrate modern and contemporary cultural factors. According to the standard classification of folk literature, Qiang oral traditions include epic poems, such as “The War between the Qiang and the Ge”, “Mujie Zhu and Deng Anzhu” and “Nisa”, and myths which reflect the origin of heaven, earth and human beings, for example, “The Creation of Heaven by Pangu”, “Pioneering Heaven and Earth”, “Marriage between Brothers and Sisters” and “The Flood”. 2. The specific historical and geographical factors which created the differences found in the oral traditions of the Qiang The Shibi of the Qiang are classified according to their different functions, and each is given a different name. These differences in the names and categories of Shibi also reflect the internal diversity and pluralism found within the oral traditions of the Qiang people. As for the Qiang folk songs, the Qiang people in the southern region are famous for their “Najinara”, while the northern region is represented by the “Hayihana”. There are also differences between the two in the way the songs are sung. “Najinara” are mainly solos which are sung while working in the field. However, the singers do not participate in labor; their role is to provide encouragement and comfort. “Hayhana” are sung while cutting firewood in the mountains and doing farm work in the fields; they are mostly sung using an antiphonal style in which there is an integration and alternation of vibrato and two different notes. The different performance styles are also reflected in the recitation of Shibi classics in different ceremonies. For example, the Shangtanjing, or upper altar rituals, are held to pray to the gods. So, the Shibi’s chanting rhythm is more relaxed, and the tone is more modest and respectful. The Zhongtanjing, or middle altar rituals, are related to the business of humans. So, the rhythm is moderate, and the mode is somewhat relaxed in its solemnity. Xiatanjing, or low altar rituals, are related to events dealing with ghosts. So, they have a more tense rhythm, a harsher tone, and furious cursing. 3. Shibi Religious culture is both an inheritance form and a cultural carrier for the oral traditions of the Qiang Historically, the Qiang did not have their own written language. The reason why their oral traditions can be passed down to the present, is, to a large extent, due to the religious culture of the Shibi. Seen from the perspective of the form of transmission, the Shibi, the priests of Qiang folk religion, are both the inheritors and transmitters of the Qiang’s oral traditions. The oral classics of the Shibi are the “living fossils” of the Qiang’s oral traditions. Shibi religious rituals are the carriers of the Qiang’s oral traditions. It can be said that t the trinity of the “Shibi — Shibi’s Oral classics — Shibi’s religious rituals”, is the cultural structure that forms the carrier and transmission form of oral traditions of the Qiang. The Shibi are, without a doubt, both the disseminators and organizers of the oral literature, oral poetry and folk songs and dances of the Qiang. They are the folk writers, singers and dancers of the Qiang. The Shibi play an important historical role in the transmission of Qiang oral traditions. They are not only the bearers of Qiang oral traditions and Shibi classics, but also the presenters of Shibi rituals and folk activities. They are, as well, the interpreters of the oral traditions and both the inheritors and transmitters of traditional culture. 4. The diversity of cultural influence: the cultural factors of Han and Tibetan in Qiang oral traditions. Tibetan culture dominated by Tibetan Buddhism had a far-reaching impact on Qiang culture. However, this influence was not dominant. There exists between the Qiang and the Tibetans a situation where they mutually absorbed each other’s culture, and their interaction reflects a contest or competition between them. This situation is reflected in the legend of “Shibi and Lama”. In the two legends collected by the investigation team in Lixian and Maoxian (Xiuxi Village in Lixian, and Yadu Township in Maoxian), the final result is that the Shibi won the competition, or the Qiang heroes saved the Lama, while in the legends circulated in the Sanjiangkou area of Wenchuan, the final result is that the Lama subdued the Shibi(Wu Yiyun,1985).These legends reflect that, historically, Tibetan Buddhism experienced challenges in the process of spreading throughout the Qiang area. The Han culture also exerted a profound and extensive influence on the oral traditions of the Qiang people. In the oral tradition of the Qiang people, there is much content that relates to Han culture, especially the legends and stories of Da Yu, such as “The Mountain Carried Away by Yu”, “The Story of Da Yu’s Birth”, “The Legend of King Xia Yu” and so on. And, the gods which are mentioned in the songs sung during the Shibi ritual ceremonies are the same as those found in Chinese Buddhism and Taoism. The Jade Emperor, Taishanglaojun, Guan Gong, the Bodhisattva Guanyin, The Medicine Bodhisattva, Songzi niangniang, Niuwang Bodhisattva, Mawang Bodhisattva, Jiangziya, and others have all become the main (Qiang) gods in later times. The concepts of heaven, hell, reincarnation and transcendence advocated in Shibi classics do not differ from those found in Han Buddhism and Taoism; the Shibi are even called Duanggong, a name used in Han areas, and the Shibi’s instruments, symbols, as well as the ways they are used are similar to those in Taoism. 5. Discussions: inheritance and reconstruction of oral tradition of the Qiang Of course, the influence of Han and Tibetan culture on Qiang culture is not a one-sided cultural assimilation, but is one that reflects the concept of “cultural reconstruction” within the process of interaction and integration. In the process of “traditional reconstruction” on a large scale, the bearers of Qiang traditional culture actively re-coded their own spiritual system and re-integrated religious classics to adjust the cultural response brought about by the huge social changes. The interaction and integration of the oral traditions of the Qiang and multi-ethnic cultures highlight this aspect of “reconstruction”. The influence of this traditional reconstruction is pluralistic: Firstly, through multi-cultural interaction and integration, the original cultural boundaries are eliminated; a win-win cultural outcome is achieved; and the crisis of survival caused by cultural conflicts is avoided. Secondly, this traditional reconstruction is not a simple cultural grafting, nor is it a compulsory assimilation under the hegemony of discourse. It is instead a cultural integration achieved through mutual interaction and adaptation. It promotes the reconstruction of a new ethnic identity and ethnic culture, which had a positive significance for the cultural change and innovation of the Qiang. Thirdly, this kind of cultural reconstruction and integration are also typical examples of the formation of the Chinese nation within the model of “diversity within unity”, which illustrates that the “Chinese nation” is not only an “imagined community”, but a national entity with a solid historical foundation and cultural identity.
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