文章摘要
蓝 武,廖玉连.清代在广西实施大规模改土归流的本土因素及其影响探析[J].民族学刊,2019,10(3):60-68, 120-122
清代在广西实施大规模改土归流的本土因素及其影响探析
An Exploration of the Local Factors and Their Impact on the Large-scale Implementation of the Gaituguiliu Policy in Guangxi during the Qing Dynasty
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.03.09
中文关键词: 清代  广西  壮族土司  改土归流  本土因素
英文关键词: The Qing dynasty  Guangxi  Zhuang tusi  gaituguiliu  local factors
基金项目:
作者单位
蓝 武 广西师范大学历史文化与旅游学院 
廖玉连 广西桂平市第三中学 
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中文摘要:
      相对于明代改土归流出现明显的反复而言,清代在广西实施的大规模改土归流总体而言是得以顺利推进的,这是内因和外因综合作用的结果,其中作为内因的清代广西本土因素确实起了相当重要的作用。壮族土官的残暴统治,壮族土司统治区社会经济的空前发展与交通条件的进一步改善,壮族土司军事力量的严重削弱,壮族土司地区文化教育的发展与忠君爱国思想观念的形成,为王朝中央在广西实施大规模的改土归流创造条件并奠定基础,成为清代在广西实施大规模改土归流的“根本原因”与内在根由。
英文摘要:
      Compared with the obvious wavering implementation of the gaituiguiliu policy (the replacement of native officials with ones appointed by the imperial court) in the Ming dynasty, the large-scale implementation of the gaituiguiliu policy in Guangxi during the Qing Dynasty was, in general, relatively smooth. This was a result of both internal and external factors, among which the internal factors, i.e. the local factors of Guangxi in the Qing dynasty, played a very important role. However, while exploring the implementation of the gaituguiliu policy, former academic research was mostly conducted from a “top-down” perspective, and it paid more attention to, or emphasized the role of the “state”. It ignored a full exploration and analysis of the internal factors of tusi society. Therefore, this article, in taking reference from former research findings, tries to explore the internal relationships and the mutual influences between the large-scale implementation of gaituguiliu policy and the conditions of the local politics, economy, military, culture and education in Guangxi during the Qing dynasty. It will do so from a bottom-up perspective, i.e. a local perspective, and it will deepen the understanding of the gaituguiliu policy through a preliminary assessment of the role of local factors in the implementation of this policy. I. The Brutal rule of the local Zhuang officials In the Qing dynasty, the cruel rule of the local Zhuang officials in Guangxi greatly intensified the contradiction between the local officials and the local people. This “internal contradiction” created an “opportunity” for the central court to carry out a large-scale gaituguoliu policy in Guangxi. The cruel rule of local Zhuang officials in Guangxi during the Qing dynasty can be seen in the following aspects: 1) economic exploitation; 2) cultural oppression; 3) brutal criminal penalties; 4) judicial injustice; 5) corrupt and depraved lives of local officials. The cruel rule of the local Zhuang officials not only led to the deterioration of the living conditions and environment of the common people, but also caused the gradual loss of popular support for the rule local officials. This resulted in armed uprisings and political struggles among the vast majority of the indigenous population. This dealt a heavy blow to the hereditary rule of the local officials, and at the same time, laid a broad foundation for the large-scale implementation of the gaituguiliu policy in Guangxi during the Qing dynasty. II. An unprecedented development of the social economy and a further improvement of communication conditions in the region ruled by the local Zhuang officials During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the social economy of the region under the rule of the Tusi of the Zhuang achieved further development, which, in turn, laid a solid economic foundation for the central court of the Qing dynasty to carry out large-scale implementation of the gaituguiliu policy in Guangxi. The development of the area was specifically seen in the follow three aspects: 1) an unprecedented development of agriculture and a commodity-based economy; 2) the formation of a landlord economy; and 3) the improvement of communication conditions. In short, the economic foundation determined superstructure. Since the middle of the Ming dynasty, the commodity economy in the Guangxi region developed to a great extent, which, in turn, impacted the feudal lord economy to a certain extent. In particular, the appearance of land and sale, and the formation of a feudal landlord economic system in the tusi region of Guangxi in Qing dynasty had a strong impact on the tusi seigniorial economic system. When the feudal landlord economic system developed to a certain extent, the tusi seigniorial economic system on which the tusi system depended faced a collapse. At this point, the gaituguiliu policy became the inevitable trend of the area’s historical development. III. The military strength of the Zhuang tusi was severely weakened In the Qing dynasty, the military power of the Zhuang tusi was weakened, which laid the necessary military foundation for the central court to implement the gaituguiliu policy. The military weakness of the tusi was seen in the following aspects: 1) The reduction of the number of soldiers under of the Zhuang tusi weakened the overall military strength of the tusi; 2) Fighting and vendettas within the tusi family led to the loss of military strength of the tusi; and, 3) The setting of the lvyingbing (green camp) caused the decline of the military influence of the Zhuang tusi. To a large extent, these three aspects caused the tusi of the Zhuang lose the capital needed to compete with the central government, thereby creating the conditions necessary for the large-scale implementation of the gaituguiliu policy in Guangxi during the Qing dynasty. IV. The development of the Han cultural education in the Zhuang tusi region and the formation of the concept of loyalty to the emperor and the state The spread and development of the Han cultural education in the Zhuang tusi region of Guangxi not only significantly increased the number of intellectuals in the tusi region, but also enabled more and more ordinary people in tusi region to become “educated” or “enlightened”. Some local officials of the Zhuang, who absorbed the Han culture relatively earlier and were deeply influenced by Confucianism, became more loyal to the feudal monarch and the imperial court. The spread of Central Plain’s Chinese education in the tusi region promoted the formation of the concept of loyalty to the emperor and the state. This not only affected the upper official class, but also the people in the bottom classes. In summary, the brutal rule of the local Zhuang officials, the unprecedented social and economic development of the region under the rule of the Zhuang tusi, a further improvement of the communication conditions, the serious weakening of the military strength of the Zhuang tusi, the development of cultural education in the Zhuang tusi area and the formation of the concept of loyalty to the central court heralded the end of the mission of the Zhuang tusi. These created the conditions and laid the foundation for the large-scale implementation of the gaituguiliu policy in Guangxi. And all these factors became the “basic reasons” or internal causes for the implementation of large-scale gaituguiliu policy in Guangxi during the Qing Dynasty.
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