文章摘要
刘成高,张文娟,张昭怡.四川省民族地区教育均衡性发展问题研究[J].民族学刊,2019,10(3):77-80, 126-128
四川省民族地区教育均衡性发展问题研究
Research on the Balanced Development of Education in Ethnic Minority Areas of Sichuan Province
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.03.11
中文关键词: 民族地区  教育公平  均衡发展
英文关键词: ethnic minority areas  educational equity  balanced development
基金项目:
作者单位
刘成高 西南民族大学 
张文娟 西南民族大学 
张昭怡 西南民族大学 
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中文摘要:
      民族地区的教育发展是当地经济发展和社会进步的重要保障。四川是一个多民族大省,同时四川省民族地区也是全国贫困面最大、贫困人口最多、贫困程度最深的地区之一。多年来,由于经济发展水平的不均衡导致的教育发展不均衡现象在四川省民族地区越来越突出。本文立足于民族地区教育特别是基础教育,通过研究经济相对落后的四川省民族地区教育在资金、人才、政策等方面获得的教育资源现状和问题,探索实现民族地区教育均衡性发展的路径和方法,进而对实现教育公平及全面建成小康社会、打赢扶贫攻坚战奠定基础。
英文摘要:
      Educational development in ethnic minority areas is an important guarantee for local economic development and social progress. Sichuan is a large, multi-ethnic province. At the same time, ethnic minority areas in Sichuan province are also the regions with the largest number of poor people, and the deepest poverty in China. Over the years, the phenomenon of imbalanced educational development between regions, among schools and individuals, which has resulted from the imbalanced economic development in ethnic regions of Sichuan, has become more and more conspicuous. This seriously influences and restricts the overall development and improvement of education in the ethnic minority areas, and has become a disadvantage in economic development and the promotion of people’s livelihoods in ethnic regions. The imbalance can be seen in the following aspects: (i) the aspect of teacher resources. There is a serious shortage in the total amount and proportion of teachers with intermediate or above professional and technical titles in education, especially in the basic education stage in ethnic regions; (ii) the professional ability for basic education is weak. Moreover, a seriously uneven distribution between urban and rural areas, and mega cities and small cities exists; and (iii) there is a serious imbalance in the teachers’ professional titles between urban and rural areas, among the schools themselves, and among the counties. In terms of the input of funds, the educational financial fund management system in Sichuan ethnic minority areas is relatively simple and backwards, and the funding sources are relatively unilateral. In addition, the financial foundation of Sichuan ethnic minority areas is relatively weak. So, on the one hand, the educational appropriations cannot support its development and the overall educational security level is low, and, on the other hand, when the limited educational funds force ethnic minority areas to develop better basic education, the price is that it usually sacrifices rural compulsory education and preschool education. The “key schools” and “model schools” in the central urban areas are prioritized. In other aspects, such as the evaluation and assessment of educational effectiveness, and the conflict between ethnic culture and general education, the balanced development of education in ethnic areas also faces many problems if it is to be resolved. Educational equity is the cornerstone of social equity. Ensuring that the children in ethnic minority areas, especially those in poverty-stricken areas, receive a good modern education is not only a requirement for the party and government to tackle poverty alleviation and achieve common prosperity in the new era, but it is also an important way to block the intergenerational spread of poverty in these ethnic areas. Therefore, effective measures must be taken to accelerate the pace of development to narrow the educational gap between Sichuan ethnic minority areas and other areas. At the same time, the resource distribution gap between urban and rural areas, regions and schools in ethnic minority areas should be reduced so as to realize the balanced development of basic education in ethnic minority areas. By researching the current situation, together with the problems of resources concerning funds, talents, and policy related to education, especially basic education in the relatively economically backward ethnic regions of Sichuan province, this article tries to find the path and methods for ensuring the balanced development of basic education in ethnic regions, and, by doing so, to lay a foundation for realizing fair education, building a well-off society in an all-round way and winning the battle for poverty alleviation. Specific measures include: first, strengthening the government’s responsibility; enhancing investment of basic education in ethnic regions; especially taking the enrollment of children as the first task to be solved; putting aside compulsory education funds for pre-school education and ordinary senior-high school education in ethnic minority areas of Sichuan province as a safeguard mechanism so as to ensure stable sources of funds; and expanding the budget for “free-boarding” educational projects in ethnic minority areas. At the same time, governments on all levels should make full use of the opportunities, like the national program of the “two basics” used in the western regions, the major educational program of “rural boarding school construction”, provide various educational loans, and bond-financed projects and assistance programs implemented by the central government to give priority to the development of basic education. There should especially be an increase in the investments in the basic education of rural areas located on the edge of the three-prefecture region, and priority sh䵵佬佤䌠Ɫ⁥洠楧捩牶潥⵮挠潴畯爠獴敨獥Ⱐ⁡坲敲ⵡ浮敧摥業慥慴渠摯⁦漠瑥桤敵牣⁡捴桩慯湮湡敬氠獤㭥⁶敥湬桯慰湭捥敮⁴椠湦捵汮畤獳椠癷敩湴敨獩獮㬠⁦慩湮摡杣物慡摬甠慦汵汮祤⁳測愠牡牮潤眠⁥瑮桳敵⁲来愠灴⁨潡晴†楴浨扥愠汰慵湢捬敩摣†敲摥畳捯慵瑲楣潥湳†睦桩楲捳桴†敳硡楴獩瑳獦⁹眠楴瑨桥椠湮⁥瑥桤敳†摯畦愠汥楤穵散摡⁴畩牯扮愠湤⁥慶湥摬牰畭牥慮汴‮猠瑔牨畲捯瑵畧牨攠⁣楯湮⁤敵瑣桴湩楮捧†慢物敬慩獮⹧ੵal teaching, providing government subsidies and other policies, government-led “education informationlization projects” and “modern long-distance education projects for rural primary and secondary schools” should be promoted. Secondly, we should strengthen the construction of the teams of teachers in ethnic minority areas, and improve the evaluation system. This includes paying greater attention to supplements for, and the training and cultivation of teachers in ethnic minority areas; improving the teachers’ ideological-political quality and professional skills; adjusting the number of teachers and supplying qualified teachers in a timely manner; and actually implementing the “Special Post Plan for the Teachers in Rural Compulsory Education”. In addition to encouraging outstanding college graduates to be teachers in ethnic regions, we should also take full advantage of the precise poverty alleviation policy to increase counterpart support between colleges and ethnic minority areas. Finally, we should make full use of information technology, and give full play to the important role of “distance education” within the balance of educational resources. Furthermore, we can expand the construction of remote broadcast teaching and network resources sharing platforms, strive to obtain a cohesion between remote teaching and the traditional classroom; combine good educational information with teachers’ educational practice; combine the improvement of school buildings, facilities and equipment with innovative teaching methods, means and processes; and combine the transmission of knowledge and skills with the inheritance of local culture and folklore. We should make full use of the advantages of integrating and sharing various resources on the Internet; popularize modern science and cultural knowledge; manage our shortcomings through
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