文章摘要
[韩国]李吉熙,阿 衣,吉木哈学.仪式、归属与重构——中国彝族“尼木”祭祖送灵仪式与韩国棺头洁净仪式比较研究[J].民族学刊,2019,10(3):81-87, 129-130
仪式、归属与重构——中国彝族“尼木”祭祖送灵仪式与韩国棺头洁净仪式比较研究
Ritual, Attribution and Reconstruction — A Comparative Study of the “Nimu” Ritual of the Yi in China and the Purification Ritual in Korea
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.03.12
中文关键词: 彝族“尼木”仪式  韩民族“洁净祭”仪式  祖灵
英文关键词: “Nimu” ritual of the Yi  Purification ritual of the Koreans  ancestor’s spirit
基金项目:
作者单位
[韩国]李吉熙 西南民族大学民族研究院 
阿 衣 西南民族大学民族研究院 
吉木哈学 西南民族大学社会学与心理学院 
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中文摘要:
      通过对中国彝族“尼木”仪式和韩国韩民族“洁净祭”仪式的含义、程序与功能进行对比后,发现二者形式差异和性质相同。仪式差异点:彝族“尼木”仪式是两个父母去世后才进行,而韩民族是死者出殡前晚上进行;彝族用竹子制作灵牌代表亡灵,韩民族是用死者衣物代表亡灵;彝族是通过毕摩念经和象征行为模拟来完成,韩民族是巫堂以多种专门的乐器伴奏下用歌曲或说话来完成。仪式共同点:主要以五个程序构成;宗旨是将亡灵送往极乐世界;目的是通过象征仪式和娱乐活动把悲伤绝望转化为希望和喜乐,追求人类延续和幸福。彝族的“尼木”仪式和韩民族“洁净祭”在宗教意义上都是以象征的形式把亡灵送往极乐世界而变成祖灵,重构了对立统一的人界和神界,以便达到重构人们和谐生活秩序的目的。
英文摘要:
      The Yi people mainly live in Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan in southwestern China. Their religious beliefs are rich and varied. Especially in Liangshan, the Yi people’s religion still retains many of its original characteristics. Korean shamanism originated in the Korean Peninsula and has a history of thousands of years. In both the folk beliefs of the Yi in China and Korea, the ritual of offering sacrifices to ancestors greatly influences people’s lives. Most of the beliefs of the two ethnic groups revolve around ancestor worship, divination, blessings, and so on. The folk beliefs of the two ethnic groups play a powerful role in people’s lives. They are the compass of people’s lives and guide their social behavior. The folk beliefs of the two ethnic groups are similar in moral and ethical construction, and norms of social conduct and the beliefs are important for the continuation of traditional culture, the integration of modern and traditional culture, and the alleviation of public psychological pressure. The “Nimu” ritual of the Yi in China and the Purification ritual of the Koreans both solve the problem of ensuring the deceased soul reaches its final destination. Therefore, these two rituals can also be called “sending the soul” rituals. They include setting up ritual procedures such as calling back the soul, preparing the soul, purifying the soul, sacrificing to the soul, and sending off the soul. All of these are conducted with the aim of restoring and reconstructing normal order in the lives of the people. Therefore, we can identify the commonality of human nature by comparing the spiritual rites of these two ethnic groups. When comparing the meaning, procedure and function of the ritual of “Nimu” of the Yi people in China and the ritual of Purification of the Koreans in Korea, we find that there are many differences in the form and scale of the two rituals, whether in the choice of time and priests, or in the process of calling back the soul, preparing the soul, cleansing the soul, sacrificing to the soul, and sending off the soul. Nonetheless, their functions are basically the same; they both want to reconstruct the psychological world, social relations and ensure a happy life. The ultimate concern of the ceremony is the same. Both ceremonies send the soul of the deceased safely to the “after life” to become an ancestor spirit or ancestor god, and live a happy life in the “other world”. Both peoples believe that the happy life of the ancestors will shine down on them like the sun and bring peace and prosperity to their descendants. It can be inferred that the living conditions of ancestors on the “other side” are directly or indirectly reflected in the lives of their descendants. The happiness of ancestors directly affects the happiness and development of future generations. This is a common manifestation of belief in “Zuling” (ancestors spirit) religion. At the same time, the death and grief of family members or future generations are recognized and reconstructed during or after the ceremony, turning despair into hope and illustrate the positive attitude of wishing for “good”. To believe in the concept that the “soul or spirit” hovers around the body of the deceased is established on the premise that the soul of the deceased still exists. Human death is not only the interruption of biological function in a physical sense, but it is also a rupture in a religious sense. This is because the danger or “impurity” in death will destroy daily harmony, and cause the disorder of social order. Overcoming this abnormal situation is done by sacrificing to the dead. It allows the dead to enter heaven safely and live a good life. Living people, thus, eliminate the abnormal conditions and return to a harmonious life. Therefore, both the “Nimu” ritual of the Yi and the Purification ritual of the Koreans are rituals for the dead. Their purpose is to symbolically send the dead to the blissful “after world”, to become a true ancestor god, to live a happy life and to shine down on the happy life of future generations. In this manner, rituals symbolically reconstruct the world of secular and sacred bliss.
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