文章摘要
仇文硕,杨清媚.布朗功能学派理论对林耀华东南宗族研究的影响[J].民族学刊,2019,10(3):88-97, 131-132
布朗功能学派理论对林耀华东南宗族研究的影响
The Influence of Radcliffe-Brown’s Theories of Functionalism on Lin Yaohua’s Research on Lineage in Southeast China
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.03.13
中文关键词: 家族制度  布朗功能学派  林耀华  宗族研究  比较社会学  结构功能主义
英文关键词: familisrn  Radcliffe-Brown’s functionalism  Lin Yaohua  study of lineage  comparative sociology  structural functionalism
基金项目:
作者单位
仇文硕 中国政法大学社会学院 
杨清媚 中国政法大学社会学院 
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中文摘要:
      通过比较林耀华早期的经验研究和1936年拉德克里夫-布朗(A .R .Radcliffe-Brown)在燕京大学的讲学课程,发现了二者在社区研究等理论方面的相通之处。林耀华通过在东南宗族乡村作出的实地调查,发现宗族的社会学特点:宗族的经济功能基于血亲间的分工合作,其情感结构面向祖先和国家,是开放而又复合的。在面对市场时,宗族作为整体积极参与其中。在面对国家时,宗族接纳了国家的权力系统。宗族即是布朗所讲的“活”的功能体,具备适应现代化的能力。因此,林耀华一直坚持用宗族作为中国社会现代化问题的研究单位。
英文摘要:
      Through a comparative study on Lin Yaohua’s early empirical research and A. R. Radcliffe-Brown’s suggestions on Chinese research proposed during his time at Yanjing University in 1936, this article finds that there are similarities in their theories, such as community research. Through his fieldwork in the southeastern villages of China, Lin Yaohua re-visited the various functions of the lineage, affirmed its ability to adapt to modernization, and put forward his own thinking on the modernization process of Chinese society. Lin went to his hometown Yixu in 1934 and conducted three-and-a-half-months of fieldwork there. From this research he completed his M.A. thesis titled yixu de zongzu yanjiu (A Study of Lineage in Yixu [hereafter the Yixu]). This research was personally guided by Professor A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, who visited China the year following Lin’s fieldwork. Lin wrote a series of articles concerning “lineage” and proposed that the lineage is a standard unit for social analysis. For the first time, Radcliffe-Brown put forward his theory of comparative sociology, arguing that the most suitable research unit for China is the village. He believed that the village, as a collective for “hu” (households), embodied basic kinship relationships, i.e., the family. The family is not only the starting point of community relations, but is also the basic unit for observing economic functions such as land. In addition, non-consanguineal social groups and individuals, together with the family, composed society as a whole. Radcliffe-Brown discussed this by dividing it into three parts, i.e. social function, comparative sociology and social change. He proposed that “functionalism” is characterized by self-adaptability and that society is like a body that is a combination, coordination and cooperation of its various parts. Comparative sociology should first distinguish types of society, and then unfold the real entity on the basis of its attached functions. Social changes are completed through “adaptation” and “integration”, that is, for the purpose of observing the function and structure of society. In this case, social organization becomes a focus of research, which is represented by the lineage in Lin Yaohua’s research. Lin Yaohua’s various researches on lineage had been carried out before Radcliffe-Brown’s visit to China. He explained that because the patriarch system differs from the familism, the form of lineage society should be re-examined. The theories of Radcliffe-Brown provided a rational basis for Lin Yaohua’s linking the lineage with modernity, clearly stating that the family itself had a complex function. In this regard, Lin Yaohua responded in the Yixu with the facts collected from his fieldwork. In terms of family organization, Lin Yaohua described the formation of the lineage in Yixu. Yixu is a lineage village with the surname Huang. The lineage can be divided into two parts: “inner” and “outer”. The family power is still in the hands of the parents, who have the right to distribute property. When the family divides, communal family property still remains. Lin Yaohua agrees with Radcliffe-Brown’s opinions on the mutual balance between patrilineal and matrilineal systems, affirming the economic core in patrilineal relationships and the emotional connections in matrilineal groups, believing that this is the basis for the formation of the lineage. In terms of the fang zhi (房支or household lineage branch) and land, Lin Yaohua explained that the term “fang” refers to a group relationship that mixes consanguinity with geography, and “zhi” is a sacrificial unit. When the lineage is faced with the market, it still participates as a single entity. In addition, the lineage also actively interacted with the “body politic”, and showed selective affinity with the state. Lin Yaohua fully affirmed the ability of the lineage to adapt to modernization. This article makes a further analysis of the lineage and modernity described above as follows: First, through the interpretation of Lin Yaohua’s distribution maps of essential culture, it can be observed that lineage, is an extended entity of the family unit, and that it is a “cultural key” distributed over all aspects. The lineage is open to the outside. Its moral structure is not introduced from the classics, but actually is a combination resulting from practical functions. As such, the study of “lineage” must return to fieldwork. Second, the lineage remains stable when it faces the modern market and the state, whereas the state has a more significant impact on the local market. Rereading Radcliffe-Brown and Lin Yaohua’s early works has definite positive effects with regard to finding ways for China’s modernization.
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