文章摘要
杨福泉.近年来西方国家纳西学研究进展述略[J].民族学刊,2019,10(4):27-36, 106-108
近年来西方国家纳西学研究进展述略
A Brief Review of the Progress of Naxi Studies in the Western Countries in Recent Years
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.04.03
中文关键词: 西方  纳西学  研究进展  前佛教文化  萨满文化
英文关键词: Western Countries  Naxi studies  research progress  Pre-Buddhism  Shaman culture
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作者单位
杨福泉 云南省社会科学院 
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中文摘要:
      本文对20世纪90年代以来的西方纳西学研究的进展进行评介,指出近年来西方纳西学的研究有三个突出的特点,一是以东巴教文化为聚焦点的展览和学术研讨会相结合,推出有深度的学术研究成果;二是研究领域不断拓展,且关注当代的文化变迁,学科涉及宗教学、文化人类学、艺术人类学、医学人类学、旅游人类学、民族音乐学、语言文献学等;三是中国和西方国家合作进行的学术活动在加强,具体表现在合作进行展览,合作研究、合作教学、合作翻译整理纳西古文献等。研究者对纳西学的研究也扩大了更多的研究空间,将纳西东巴文化作为解读喜马拉雅周边文化区域中的前佛教文化、萨满文化种种不解之谜而进行深入研究的趋势在西方学者中不断形成。
英文摘要:
      This paper reviews the progress of the Naxi studies in the Western countries since 1990s, and discusses three characteristics which stand out. The first is the combining of exhibitions and academic conferences focusing on Dongba culture to produce in-depth academic research results; the second is the expansion of the research disciplines, to include religious studies, cultural anthropology, anthropology of art, medical anthropology, tourism anthropology, ethnomusicology, linguistic documentation, and so on, together with a concern for contemporary cultural changes. The third is the strengthening of academic activities carried out in cooperation between China and Western countries. This is reflected in joint exhibitions, research, teaching, and translations and collation of ancient Naxi manuscripts. Researchers have also expanded the research space given to Naxi studies, and, in Western academia, a trend has appeared for conducting in-depth studies of Naxi Dongba culture for explaining unresolved aspects of pre-Buddhist and Shaman cultures within the greater Himalayan culture area. 1. The integration of exhibitions, academic lectures, curricula, conferences and academic writings After the 1990s, a change took place within the study of the Naxi in the West. With the reform and opening-up of China, Dongba culture could now be exhibited in Western countries. Therefore, anthropologists in Europe and America began to make plans which combined the exhibition of Dongba culture, such as manuscripts, paintings, rituals, instruments, etc., with academic conferences and writing monographs. Since the 1990s, Professor Michael Oppitz, a German anthropologist, has been considered one of the leading scholars in Naxi studies. When he was a curator at the Ethnology Museum of Zurich University in Switzerland, he created an academic exhibition focusing on Dongba culture. He invited scholars and experts from China, Switzerland, the United States, Germany, France, Italy, Portugal, as well as He Jigui, an old Dongba priest, to participate in the exhibition. The exhibition, which began on December 4, 1997, lasted until May 15, 1998. The academic innovation of this exhibition is outstanding. Oppitz gave it the German title “Naxi Dinge, Mythen, Piktogramme” (in English: “Naxi things, myths, pictographs”). During the time of the exhibition, he also invited Chinese and foreign scholars to give lectures at the University of Zurich. These included He Limin, Li Jingsheng, Ge Agan, Yang Fuquan and Charles Mckhann, an American scholar. Ten academic seminars were held. After that, he and Dr. Elisabeth Hsu edited a book titled Naxi and Moso Ethnography: Kin, Rites, and Pictographs. Another Dongba cultural exhibition which was closely related with academic research was held at Whitman College in Washington State, USA in 2003. It was titled “Icon and Transformation (Re)Imaginings in Dongba Art”. This is the first time that a Naxi cultural exhibition and related teaching activities were organized on such a large scale in the United States. During the exhibition an academic monograph with the same title as the exhibition, i.e. Icon and Transformation (Re)Imaginings in Dongba Art, was published. In addition to the paintings and calligraphy displayed in the exhibition, the monograph also included papers by Chas Mckhann, Yang Fuquan and Zhang Yunling. During this period, Yang Fuquan and Zhang Yunling taught courses on Naxi culture and art, and the ethnicity and modernity of Southwest China for six months at Whitman College. The third exhibition which combined international academic activities in which I participated was the Naxi Dongba Cultural and Art Exhibition held at the Rubin Museum of Art in New York City from May 13 to September 19, 2011. The title of the exhibition was “Quentin Roosevelt’s China: Ancestral Realms of the Naxi”. On the second day of the exhibition, an international conference on Naxi studies was held in the museum, and scholars of Naxi studies from China, the United States, Germany, Switzerland, Austria and other countries attended. An academic work with the same name as the exhibition was also published. II. Broadening the academic fields and concerns with social change Since the 1980s, along with China’s reform and opening up, cooperation between Chinese scholars and foreign scholars became a highlight of Naxi studies, and the fields and disciplines involved expanded. In the early 1980s, Yang Fuquan and Professor K. L. Janert of Cologne University in Germany cooperated in the field of contemporary Naxi language and literature, and jointly published a series of works, for example, Modern Naxi Manuscripts and Their Grammatical Analysis. In 1999, Yang Fuquan and Hanny Feurer, a professor from Quebec University, Canada, conducted a sociolinguistic study together of the forms of greetings found among the Naxi and Tibetans of Yunnan. They conducted a field survey for more than three months; and later they jointly published a long article in the well-known academic journal “Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area (1999 Volume 22, no 1). The paper is titled Greetings of Tibetans and Naxi Nationalities in Yunnan. In 2000, British anthropologist, Dr. Helen Rees, published Echoes of History: Naxi Music in Modern China. This is the first study of “Naxi ancient music” by a foreign scholar and it won high praise in foreign academic circles. Chas Mckhann, an anthropology Professor at Whitman College, Washington, USA, is one of the major figures of Naxi studies in the West. His main academic interest during the 1980s and 1990s was the study of the cosmology and kinship systems as seen in the structure of Naxi Dongba religious rituals. He also studied the influence of Han and Tibetan cultures on the Naxi people, and the changes of the Naxi people in modern times. In the 1990s, Emily Chao, who received her Ph.D. from the Department of Anthropology at the University of Michigan in the United States, did resgroups is also a hot topic that concerns foreign scholars, and shows considerable promise. This kind of comparative study will involve not only a comparative study with Tibetan Bon religion mentioned above, but also with Han ancient culture, ancient Qiang culture, Dunhuang literature, the linguistic and religious cultures of Tibetan-Burmese language groups and the Xixia.so a feature of contemporary international Naxi studies to focus on the Naxi from the perspective of medical anthropology. In the 1980s and 1990s, S.D. White, a doctoral student from the University of Berkeley, USA, studied the Naxi from this perspective. Following her, at the beginning of the 21st century, the Italian scholar, Dr. Cristiana Turini, also studied the Naxi from the perspective of medical anthropology. She made an in-depth study of the relationship between the human body, disease and treatment. The number of international academic conferences centered on Naxi studies has increased since the 1990s. In addition to the above-mentioned academic conferences which were combined with Naxi cultural exhibitions, from March 13 to 18, 2013, an international academic conference and a series of academic lectures on Naxi studies were organized by the Confucius Institute at the University of Macerata together with the University of Macerata in Italy. Alexis Michaud, a researcher at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Research Centre for of Languages and Cultures of Oral Tradition (LACITO), is one of the most outstanding scholars in Naxi studies from the linguistic point of view. He has made great achievements in the study of the Na (Moso) people. In recent years, Chinese scientific research institutes, in cooperation with foreign linked institutes, have taken strong steps forward in the translation and collation of Naxi Dongba manuscripts and documents. The Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the Lijiang Institute of Dongba Culture Study, in collaboration with the Harvard-Yenching Institute in the United States, have translated and interpreted the Dongba manuscripts collected by Harvard University. The Naxi Dongba Manuscripts of Hafo-Yanjing Xueshe Cang Naxi Dongba Jingshu (The Collection of Naxi manuscripts of the Harvard-Yenching Institute (Volume 1-5) has been translated and published by the Chinese Social Science Publishing House. It is the first set of photocopied Naxi Dongba literature which had been collected and stored abroad and returned to China so far. Chinese scholars have translated and published texts with scientific notation using a “four point comparative” methodology (i.e. first, photocopying the original text, second, transliterating the Dongba script using the international phonetic alphabet, third, making a literal translation into Chinese and, finally, doing a freer translation). Each of the five volumes of translated texts also contains a summary of English content. III. Conclusion Throughout the Naxi studies in the West since 1990s, there are three outstanding features: 1) combining Dongba culture exhibitions with academic seminars and conferences, which are accompanied by the publication of in-depth academic research results; 2) the expansion of the research fields and disciplines to include religious studies, cultural anthropology, anthropology of art , medical anthropology, tourism anthropology, ethnomusicology, language and literature, etc., together with a concern for contemporary cultural changes; 3) strengthening cooperative academic activities carried out jointly by Chinese and Western scholars which are seen in the joint exhibitions, research, teaching, translation and collation of Naxi ancient manuscripts, etc. The space given to Naxi studies has also expanded. And, in Western academia, a trend has appeared for conducting in-depth studies of Naxi Dongba culture in order to explain unresolved aspects of pre-Buddhist and Shaman culture within the greater Himalayan culture area. A comparative study of Dongba religion and the religions and customs of neighboring ethnic
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