文章摘要
宓淑贤.“抖音”上的个体形象建构与对社会价值观的呼应——兼论书写“抖音”微生活民族志的可能性[J].民族学刊,2019,10(4):54-61. 115-117
“抖音”上的个体形象建构与对社会价值观的呼应——兼论书写“抖音”微生活民族志的可能性
The Construction of Individual Images and the Reciprocity of Social Values on “Tik Tok” — On the Possibility of Writing a “Tik Tok” Micro-life Ethnography
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.04.06
中文关键词: 抖音  微生活民族志  形象建构  社会价值观
英文关键词: Tik Tok  micro-life ethnography  image construction  social values
基金项目:
作者单位
宓淑贤 复旦大学社会发展与公共政策学院 
摘要点击次数: 20
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中文摘要:
      人们构建形象、呈现自我的方式在自媒体时代不断发生着转变,这是人类学家不得不关注的现象。赵旭东教授指出,“微信民族志”时代已经到来。本研究认为,“抖音”作为当代青年中最具影响力的短视频平台,可以拓展微信民族志研究,但怎样开展“抖音”微生活民族志研究尚无一些有创建的尝试。本研究首先分析了书写“抖音”微生活民族志的可能性,进而厘清了研究对象,且以此为基础,对“抖音”微生活民族志进行了一种探索性的书写,试分析“抖音”短视频对个体形象建构的主观和客观影响。研究发现,短视频内容文本的反复强化特点促使个体有效建构自我形象;在个体不主动避讳被熟人观看时,他们的线下形象与线上形象基本吻合;看似是网民共同主动筛选出来的网红,实则是当前社会价值观的反映。
英文摘要:
      Since 2016, the rise of the short video platforms represented by “Tik Tok” and “Kwai” has greatly affected people’s lifestyle. The users of “Tik Tok” are mainly young people born in 1990s living in first-tier and second-tier cities. Browsing “Tik Tok” short videos has become one of the entertainment activities of young students and urban commuters. Different from previous expressions using self-presentation of graphics and text, short videos is characterized by timely shooting, fast editing and synchronous sharing. It combines multiple factors such as image, sound, text and real-time environment to achieve a more comprehensive and intuitive realization. It is possible to achieve individual self-presentation more comprehensively and intuitively. Anthropologists should pay attention to the way people construct their own images and present themselves in the constantly changing era of “We” media. Professor Zhao Xudong pointed out that the era of “WeChat ethnography” has already arrived. This study believes that “Tik Tok”, as the most influential short-live video platform, can expand the research on WeChat ethnography, but the question is how to carry out the research for a “Tik Tok” micro-life ethnography? There have not yet been any effective or creative practices. This study analyzes the possibility of writing a “Tik Tok” micro-life ethnography, and then clarifies the research targets.. And, it expands the concept of text, and points out that the research targets of “Tik Tok” micro-life ethnography can be video content text, topic text and commentary text. The research methodology inherits the idea of virtual ethnography, namely, participant observation, interviews, etc. This study emphasizes the combination of two kinds of “imprints” online and offline from the exploration of WeChat ethnography, and points out the necessity and possibility of writing “Tik Tok” micro-life ethnography. Since November 2018, I began using the method of participant observation to observe the “Tik Tok” short video app. From December 2018 to May 2019, the video content of carefully selected 28 “Tik Tok” users was recorded and classified. The selection criteria for the users were that they: i) covered different regions, and ii) included various video types. Twenty-one of them belonged to “non-Internet celebrities” and 7 of them belonged to “Internet Celebrities”. The 21 “non-Internet celebrities” are from Shanghai, Suzhou, Jining, Lanzhou, Chengdu, Baotou, Urumqi, Jilin, and Guangzhou. Their ages ranged from 20 to 38; there were 14 males and 14 females; and they came from different occupations, including students, professionals, teachers, full-time mothers, civil servants, etc. The content types of the videos taken by the 7 “Internet Celebrities” differed from each other. Within six months, 3 to 8 in-depth interviews of 16 of the 21 non-Internet celebrities “Tik Tok” users were conducted and 1-3 online interviews of 5 “Tik Tok” users were conducted. As for the 7 “Internet Celebrities”, I did not conduct any interviews, but used the “Tik Tok” short video platform to conduct participatory observation, and classify the video content. According to the actual situation of the 28“Tik Tok” users in this study, the content of the short video can be divided into eight main types, namely, photo collections, imitative performance, live scene performance, live scene shooting, skills display, life experience sharing (tucao or complaining about something in a humorous way), teasing very close people, and economic performances. This paper takes the text of video content as the main object of the research, and combines online participant observation and offline in-depth interviews to “write” the individual image construction with subjective initiative and objective mapping. There are three main points of views as follows: Firstly, although the “Tik Tok” short video shooters subjectively have not used the concentrated short video content text to shape their images, their individual images have been shaped and imprinted objectively by their high occurrence rate, and their being repeatedly enhanced short video content text. Because the short video shooter’s online image and offline image are relatively the same, the image presented by the video content basically depends on the characteristics of the photographer. Viewers who are acquaintances easily ignore each other, that is, the images constructed by the video do not have an effect among acquaintances. It only works among strangers, such as the online celebrities and their fans. The fans construct the images of online celebrities unconsciously, and this image is an extension of the individual’s online life. Secondly, the contents of the “Tik Tok” short video being shot by online celebrities are very rich. The shooters have their own considerations when they choose the specific content to be shot. Most people will start from their own actual situation and compare it with the videos of internet celebrities. In the early stage, most “Tik Tok” users imitate the performances of the online celebrity videos. In the middle and later stages, they will gradually add some innovative performances, hoping that they will become one of the central figures in this “star-making” movement. Superficially, the short video shooters actively choose the types of short video content on their own. In fact, these video content texts are a materialized display of current social values and social expectations. The text of the online celebrity video content that people praise a lot is the objectification of the social entity in a Durkheimian sense. In this ritual-like jubilation, the minds of netizens have an unprecedented passion — actually they are “fans” of this “social” entity. Thirdly, because young people are the main audience of “Tik Tok” short videos, the content of the texts presents an objectification of young peoples’ social values, such as their views on marriage and love, gender, family, and ways for maintaining interpersonal relations. The saying that “the various family roles of others will not disappoint me” is nothing more than a razor’s edge difference between the ideal family role and the actual family role. The ideal roles online present the regrets of the viewer’s life in the video content. Women spend much energy on raising their children while men of different generations differ in doing housework and child care. The husbands of the young generation shoulder more responsibility than the husbands of the older generation. However, they do not do as much as the “others’ husbands” presented in some famous of online videos. Parents help young people to look after their children while the young people require free time to enjoy their own life independently (not willing to be saddled with children every day). Young people nowadays may face the “421” (i.e. parents and parents-in-law, husband and wife, one child) or even the “422” (i.e. parents and parents-in-law, husband and wife, two children)) family structure. They are under a great pressure from family responsibilities while as the same time, they hope to pursue individuality and enjoyment. Therefore, young people choose to rely on their parents functionally. Different from their parents’ way of forbearance, young people began to vent their negative emotions through the “tucao”. At the same time, young people create cultural creations in the topic texts and commentary areas of the “Tik Tok” short videos, namely, via network terms and online popular phrases, etc. Some types of the texts in short video reflect social phenomena and social reflections centered on young people.
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