文章摘要
廖 钰.论道光年间滇南地区土司“文化治边”之举措——以《滇事杂档》史料为中心[J].民族学刊,2019,10(4):69-75, 120-121
论道光年间滇南地区土司“文化治边”之举措——以《滇事杂档》史料为中心
On the Measures for “Governing Frontier through Culture” Implemented by Tusi in the Southern Yunnan during the Daoguang Period — Based on the Historical Materials in Yunnan Miscellaneous Archives
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2019.04.08
中文关键词: 道光年间  滇南地区  土司  文化治边
英文关键词: Daoguang period  southern Yunnan  tusi  governing the frontier through culture
基金项目:
作者单位
廖 钰 西南民族大学在读博士长江师范学院重庆民族研究院 
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中文摘要:
      道光年间滇南地区土司依靠清王朝授予的诰敕、号纸、印信等信物取得合法统治权之后,他们通过治边文化软实力的浸润,采取多种举措体现自己的权力象征,以实现“文化治边”的目标。具体而言,“文化治边”举措有四:一是在物质文化方面,土司衙署的建立;二是在制度文化方面,印信号纸的获得;三是在行为文化方面,土司法令的施行;四是在精神文化方面,表征系统、话语体系和意识形态等文化权力结构的建立。《滇事杂档》相关史料中以文治和教化等文化权力表征体系来治理滇南土司地区的思想,既是对清代中期官僚政治的认识与理解,又是对道光年间土司文化治权的阐述和诠释。
英文摘要:
      The tusi (native official in imperial China) system in Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties is a special political system characterized by “state presence” and “state dominance” in managing ethnic minorities in the southwestern, central south and northwestern regions of China. Its fundamental purpose was to change the country’s indirect rule over these border areas into direct governance. During this process, a mutual relationship between the central court and the local tusi areas was set up. Then, gradually a community with a common destiny and a consortium of interests was created and the purpose of the central government was achieved through “governing the frontier through culture”. This was a strategy which had its earliest roots in the Yuan dynasty, was carried out concretely during the Ming dynasty in Yunnan, and was more skillfully implemented and reached a better state during the Qing dynasty. In 2016, I consulted tusi historical materials in the National Library of China and was fortunate to obtain a complete set of the microfilms of the book dianshi zadang (Yunnan Miscellaneous Archives) compiled by Hu Qirong and Huang Zhongwei during the late Qing Dynasty. The Yunnan Miscellaneous Archives recorded relevant historical materials about the tusi of lin’an fu, pu’er fu and shunning fu of Yunnan during the Daoguang period (this includes present-day Baoshan, Dehong, Lincang, Pu’er, and most of the areas in Xishuangbanna and Honghe in Yunnan). The book includes 11 volumes of more than 120, 000 words, documenting the period from the 13th to the 27th year of the Daoguang period (1833-1847). Its content includes the social issues from more than 10 areas ruled by tusi in southern Yunnan, for example, Cheli, Gengma, Nandian, Zhenkang, Mengma, Mengla, Situo, Nalou, Mengding, Xichu, Nageng, and Wazha, as well as the responses of the liuguan (officials appointed by the imperial government to the areas) regarding the strategies of how they handled the crises. By focusing on the historical materials in Yunnan Miscellaneous Archives, this paper intends to explore the concept of “governance of the frontier through culture” implemented by the tusi in southern Yunnan during the Daoguang period using a lens of four specific symbolic measures of cultural power. Specifically, there are four measures concerning “the governance of the frontier through culture”. First, with regard to material culture, it was reflected in establishing the Tusi Yashu (tusi administration); second, with regard to cultural systems, it was reflected through the acquisition of yinxin (imperial seals) and haozhi ( documents issued by the imperial court in the Ming and Qing dynasties, which record the title, lineage and year of succession of tusi); third, with regard to cultural behavior, it was reflected in the implementation of tusi decrees; fourth, with regard to spiritual culture, it was reflected by establishing cultural power structures including a system of representation, a system of discourse, and ideology. In the related historical materials recorded in Yunnan Miscellaneous Archives, the philosophy of governing the tusi areas in southern Yunnan with a system of representation of cultural power, such as civil and enlightened rule, was gleaned not only by understanding the bureaucracy in the middle of Qing Dynasty, but also via the exposition and interpretation of cultural governance by the tusi during the Daoguang period.
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